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C.1 Usage
C.1.1 HEVEA usage
The hevea command has two operating modes, normal mode and filter mode. Operating mode is determined by the nature of the last command line argument.

C.1.1.1 Command line arguments
The hevea command interprets its arguments as names of files and attempts to process them. Given an argument filename there are two cases:
  • If filename is base.tex or base.hva, then a single attempt to open filename is made.
  • In other cases, a first attempt to open filename.tex is made. In case of failure, a second attempt to open filename is made.
In all attempts, implicit filenames are searched along hevea search path, which consist in:
  1. the current directory ``.'',
  2. user-specified directories (with the -I command line option),
  3. hevea library directory.
  4. one of the sub-directories html, text or info from hevea library directory, depending upon hevea output format,
The hevea library directory is fixed at compile-time (this is where hevea library files are installed) and typically is /usr/local/lib/hevea. However, this compile-time value can be overridden by setting the HEVEADIR shell environment variable.

C.1.1.2 Normal mode
If the last argument has an extension that is different from .hva or has no extension, then it is interpreted as the name of the main input file. The main input file is the document to be translated and normally contains the \documentclass command. In that case two basenames are defined:
  • The input basename, basein, is defined as the main input file name, with extension removed when present.
  • The output basename, baseout, is basein with leading directories omitted. However the output basename can be changed, using the -o option (see the section on options below).
HEVEA will attempt to load the main input file. Ancillary files from a previous run of LATEX (i.e., .aux, .bll and .idx files) will be searched as basein.ext. The output base name governs all files produced by HEVEA. That is, HTML output of HEVEA normally goes to the file baseout.html, while cross-referencing information goes into baseout.haux. Furthemore, if an image file is generated (cf. section 6), its name will be baseout.image.tex.

Thus, in the simple case where the hevea command is invoked as:
# hevea file.tex
The input basename is file and the output basename also is file. The main input file is searched once along hevea search path as file.tex. HTML output goes into file file.html, in the current directory.

In the more complicated case where the hevea command is invoked as:
# hevea ./dir/file
The input base name is ./dir/file and the output basename is file. The main input file is loaded by first attempting to open file ./dir/file.tex, then file ./dir/file. HTML output goes into file file.html, in the current directory.

The article.hva, seminar.hva, book.hva and report.hva base style files from HEVEA library are special. Only the first base style file is loaded and the \documentclass command has no effect when a base style file is already loaded. This feature allows to override the document base style. Thus, a document file.tex can be translated using the article base style as follows:
# hevea article.hva file.tex
C.1.1.3 Filter mode
If there is no command line argument, or if the last command line argument has the extension .hva, then there is neither input base name nor output base name, the standard input is read and output normally goes to the standard output. Output starts immediately, whithout waiting for \begin{document}. In other words hevea acts as a filter.

Please note that this operating mode is just for translating isolated LATEX constructs. The normal way to translate a full document file.tex being ``hevea file.tex'' and not ``hevea < file.tex > file.html''.

C.1.1.4 Options
The hevea command recognizes the following options:
Show hevea version and exit.
Verbose flag, can be repeated to increase verbosity. However, this is mostly for debug.
Suppress warnings.
-e filename
Prevent hevea from loading any file whose name is filename. Note that this option applies to all files, including hevea.hva and base style files.
Iterate HEVEA until a fixpoint is found. Additionnaly, images get generated automatically.
Optimize HTML by calling esponja (see section C.1.3.
-exec prog
Execute file prog and read the output. The file prog must have execution permission and is searched by following the searching rules of hevea.
Set French mode. This has three consequences:
  • Some words inserted by LATEX (such as ``Chapter'', ``Bibliography'', ...) are replaced by French word.
  • Text replacement for symbols are in French (see the -nosymb option below).
  • hevea sets the boolean register french to true.
Avoid symbol font. In this mode, symbols are replaced by text-only equivalents. By default, these equivalent are in English.
Do not output (iso-latin1) characters whose code is above 127 (i.e. output ascii only). These characters are replaced by HTML entities. This option is mostly useful for generating HTML that will be displayed properly by Netscape Communicator on a Macintosh.
Be strict in interpreting HTMLdefinition. In particular, this option disable size and color changes inside <PRE>... </PRE>, which are otherwise performed.
-I dirname
Add dirname to the search path.
-o name
Make name the output basename. However, if name is base.html, then the output basename is base.
Print version number and a short help message.
The following options select and control alternative output formats (see section 10):
Output plain text. Output file extension is .txt.
Output info format. Output file extension is .info.
-w width
Set the line width for text or info output, defaults to 72.
Part A of this document is a tutorial introduction to HEVEA, while HEVEA reference manual is part B.

C.1.2 HACHA usage
The hacha command interprets its argument base.html as the name of a HTML source file to cut into pieces.

It also recognizes the following options:
Be a little verbose.
-o filename
Make HACHA output go into file filename (defaults to index.html).
Add a small table of contents at every file start.
Output a base.hrf file, showing in which output files are the anchors from the input file gone. The format of this summary is one ``anchor\tfile'' line per anchor. This information may be needed by other tools.
Print version number and a short help message.
Section 7 of the user manual explains how to alter HACHA default behavior.

C.1.3 esponja usage
The program esponja is part of HEVEA and is designed to optimize hevea output. However, esponja can also be used alone to optimize text-level elements in HTML files. Since esponja fails to operate when it detects incorrect HTML, it can be used as a partial HTML validator.

C.1.3.1 Operating modes
With no argument, esponja acts as a filter, it reads the standard input and writes on the standard output. Otherwise, esponja interprets its arguments as names of files and attempt to process them. It is important to notice that esponja will replace files by their optimized versions.

Hence, to optimize file foo.html into foo_opt.html, one should invoke esponja as follows.
# esponja < foo.html > foo_opt.html
By contrast, invoking esponja as
# esponja foo.html
will alter foo.html. Of course, if esponja does not succeed in making foo.html any smaller or if esponja fails, the original foo.html is left unchanged. Note that this feature allows to optimize all HTML files in a given directory by:
# esponja *.html
C.1.3.2 Options
The command esponja recognizes the following options:
Be verbose, can be repeated to increase verbosity.
Do not alter input files. Instead, esponja output for file input goes to file input.esp. Option -n implies option -v.
Output esponja intermediate version of HTML. In most occasions, this amouts to pessimize instead of to optimize. It may yield challenging input for other HTML optimizers.
C.1.4 imagen usage
The command imagen is a simple shell script that translates a LATEX document into many .gif images. The imagen script relies on much software to be installed on your computer, see Section C.4.1.

It is a companion program of HEVEA, which must have been previously run as:
# hevea... base.tex
# hevea... -o base.html...
(In both cases, base is HEVEA output basename.) When told to do so (see section 6) HEVEA echoes part of its input into the base.image.tex file.

The imagen script should then be run as:
# imagen base
The imagen script produces one basennn.gif image file per page in the base.image.tex file.

This is done by first calling latex on base.image.tex, yielding one dvi file. Then, dvips translates this file into one single Postscript file that contains all the images, or into one Postscript file per image, depending upon your version of dvips. Postscript files are interpreted by ghostscript (gs) that outputs ppm images, which are then fed into a series of transformations that change them into .gif files.

The imagen script recognizes the following options:
-mag nnnn
Change the enlarging ratio that is applied while translating DVI into Postscript. More precisely, dvips is run with -xnnnn option. Default value for this ration is 1414, this means that, by default, imagen magnifies LATEX output by a factor of 1.414.
-extra command
Insert command as an additional stage in imagen ppm to gif production chain. command is an Unix filter that expects a ppm image in its standard input and outputs a ppm image on its standard output. A sensible choice for command is one command from the netpbm package or several such commands piped together.
-quant number
Add an extra color quantization step in imagen ppm image production chain, where number is the maximal number of colors in the produced images. This option may be needed in response of a failure in the image production chain. It can also help in limiting image files size.
Output GIF images. This is the default.
Output PNG images in place of GIF images. PNG is sometimes prefered for legal reasons. PNG image files have a ``.png'' extension. Note that hevea should have been previously run as hevea png.hva base.tex (so that the proper ``.png'' filename extension is given to image file references from within the HTML document). Beware that the pnmtopng program looks to be plagued by bugs in old versions of the netpbm package.
Output PPM images. This option mostly serves debugging purposes. Experimented users can also take advantage of it for performing additional image transformation or adopting exotic image formats.
The first three options enable users to correct some misbehaviors. For instance, when the document base style is seminar, image orientation may be wrong and the images are too small. This can be cured by invoking imagen as:
# imagen -extra "pnmflip -ccw" -mag 2000 base

Sometimes imagen crashes because the PPM transformation chain does not cope with images with more than 256 colors by default. The solution is to re-issue the imagen command as:
# imagen -quant 256 base

More information on producing images can be found in section 6.

C.1.5 Using make

Here is a typical Makefile for translating a doc.tex source file into HTML. The file is first translated into doc.html by hevea, which also reads the specific style file macros.hva. Then, hacha cuts doc.html into several, doc001.html, doc002.html, etc. also producing the table of links file index.html.
#document base name
index.html: $(DOC).html
        $(HACHA) -o index.html $(DOC).html

$(DOC).html: macros.hva $(DOC).tex
        $(HEVEA) $(HEVEAOPTS) macros.hva $(DOC).tex
        rm -f $(DOC).html index.html $(DOC)[0-9][0-9][0-9].html $(DOC).haux
Note that the clean rule removes all the doc001.html, doc002.html, etc. files produced by hacha. Also note that make clean also removes the doc.haux file. Thanks to the -fix options, hevea will run the appropriate number of times.

When the image file feature is used, one can use the following, extended, Makefile:
#document base name
index.html: $(DOC).html
        $(HACHA) -o index.html $(DOC).html

$(DOC).html: macros.hva $(DOC).tex
        $(HEVEA) $(HEVEAOPTS) macros.hva $(DOC).tex

        rm -f $(DOC).html index.html $(DOC)[0-9][0-9][0-9].html $(DOC).haux
        rm -f $(DOC).htoc
        rm -f $(DOC).image.*
        rm -f $(DOC)[0-9][0-9][0-9].gif
Observe that the clean rule now also gets rid of doc.image.tex and of the various files produced by imagen. Note the following, useful feature : when given the -fix option, hevea will itself run imagen, if needed.

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