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section g of routines in global.i

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# all functions - g

 gauss_gate ``` gauss_gate(times) gate function used by gaussian_gate. Refer to the source code to learn how to write your own gate function, making proper use of drat_start and drat_stop options in addition to the input times. interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 794 ``` SEE ALSO: gaussian_gate,   drat_gate

 gauss_int ``` gauss_int(t) returns time integral of Gaussian specified in call to gaussian_gate. interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 819 ```

 gaussian_gate ``` gaussian_gate(t0, tsigma, max_trans) sets the drat_gate for the snap function to be a Gaussian centered at time T0, with sigma TSIGMA, and maximum transmission fraction MAX_TRANS. interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 841 ``` SEE ALSO: snap,   drat_gate

 gcd ``` gcd(a,b) returns the GCD (greatest common divisor) of A and B, which must be one of the integer data types. A and B may be conformable arrays; the semantics of the gcd call are the same as any other binary operation. Uses Euclid's celebrated algorithm. The absolute values of A and B are taken before the operation commences; if either A or B is 0, the return value will be 0. interpreted function, defined at i/gcd.i line 10 ``` SEE ALSO: lcm,   is_prime,   factorize

 generays ``` generays interpreted function, defined at i/ylmdec.i line 120 ```

 geocentric ``` geocentric interpreted function, defined at i/kepler.i line 209 ```

 get3_centroid ``` get3_centroid(xyz, nxyz) or get3_centroid(xyz) return 3D centroids for polygons with vertices XYZ. If NXYZ is specified, XYZ should be 3-by-sum(nxyz), with NXYZ being the list of numbers of vertices for each polygon (as for the plfp function). If NXYZ is not specified, XYZ should be a quadrilateral mesh, 3-by-ni-by-nj (as for the plf function). In the first case, the return value is 3-by-numberof(NXYZ); in the second case, the return value is 3-by-(ni-1)-by-(nj-1). The centroids are constructed as the mean value of all vertices of each polygon. interpreted function, defined at i/pl3d.i line 480 ``` SEE ALSO: get3_normal,   get3_light

 get3_light ``` get3_light(xyz, nxyz) or get3_light(xyz) return 3D lighting for polygons with vertices XYZ. If NXYZ is specified, XYZ should be 3-by-sum(nxyz), with NXYZ being the list of numbers of vertices for each polygon (as for the plfp function). If NXYZ is not specified, XYZ should be a quadrilateral mesh, 3-by-ni-by-nj (as for the plf function). In the first case, the return value is numberof(NXYZ); in the second case, the return value is (ni-1)-by-(nj-1). The parameters of the lighting calculation are set by the light3 function. interpreted function, defined at i/pl3d.i line 363 ``` SEE ALSO: light3,   set3_object,   get3_normal,   get3_centroid

 get3_normal ``` get3_normal(xyz, nxyz) or get3_normal(xyz) return 3D normals for polygons with vertices XYZ. If NXYZ is specified, XYZ should be 3-by-sum(nxyz), with NXYZ being the list of numbers of vertices for each polygon (as for the plfp function). If NXYZ is not specified, XYZ should be a quadrilateral mesh, 3-by-ni-by-nj (as for the plf function). In the first case, the return value is 3-by-numberof(NXYZ); in the second case, the return value is 3-by-(ni-1)-by-(nj-1). The normals are constructed from the cross product of the lines joining the midpoints of two edges which as nearly quarter the polygon as possible (the medians for a quadrilateral). No check is made that these not be parallel; the returned "normal" is [0,0,0] in that case. Also, if the polygon vertices are not coplanar, the "normal" has no precisely definable meaning. interpreted function, defined at i/pl3d.i line 421 ``` SEE ALSO: get3_centroid,   get3_light

 get3_xy ``` get3_xy, xyz, x, y or get3_xy, xyz, x, y, z, 1 Given 3-by-anything coordinates XYZ, return X and Y in viewer's coordinate system (set by rot3, mov3, orient3, etc.). If the fifth argument is present and non-zero, also return Z (for use in sort3d or get3_light, for example). If the camera position has been set to a finite distance with setz3, the returned coordinates will be tangents of angles for a perspective drawing (and Z will be scaled by 1/zc). interpreted function, defined at i/pl3d.i line 520 ``` SEE ALSO: sort3d,   get3_light,   rot3,   setz3,   set3_object

 get_addrs ``` addr_lists= get_addrs(file) returns the byte addresses of the non-record and record variables in the binary file FILE, and lists of the record addresses, file indices, and filenames for file families with history records. *addr_lists(1) absolute addresses of non-record variables *addr_lists(2) relative addresses of record variables (add record address to get absolute address) The order of these two address lists matches the corresponding lists of names returned by get_vars. *addr_lists(3) absolute addresses of records *addr_lists(4) list of file indices corresponding to addr_lists(3); indices are into addr_lists(5) *addr_lists(5) list of filenames in the family builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 2375 ``` SEE ALSO: openb,   updateb,   restore,   jt,   jc,   has_records,   get_vars

 get_argv ``` get_argv() returns string array containing the argv from the command line. The -batch and batch_include.i arguments are removed (not returned). builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 1596 ``` SEE ALSO: process_argv,   cd,   get_cwd,   get_home,   get_env,   batch

 get_cwd ``` get_cwd() or get_home() returns the pathname of the current working directory or of your home directory. builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 1580 ``` SEE ALSO: cd,   lsdir,   get_env,   get_argv

 get_env ``` get_env(environment_variable_name) returns the environment variable (a string) associated with ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE_NAME (calls ANSI getenv routine). builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 1589 ``` SEE ALSO: cd,   get_cwd,   get_home,   get_env,   get_argv

 get_home ``` get_home builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 1580 ``` SEE get_cwd

 get_instructions ``` get_instructions interpreted function, defined at i/make.i line 433 ```

 get_kaps ``` get_kaps interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 1041 ```

 get_keys ``` get_keys interpreted function, defined at i/make.i line 372 ```

 get_list ``` get_list interpreted function, defined at i/make.i line 385 ```

 get_member ``` get_member(f_or_s, member_name) returns F_OR_S member MEMBER_NAME, like F_OR_S.MEMBER_NAME syntax, but MEMBER_NAME can be a computed string. The F_OR_S may be a binary file or a structure instance. builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 1739 ``` SEE ALSO: openb

 get_mesh ``` get_mesh interpreted function, defined at i/demo4.i line 66 ```

 get_ncycs ``` get_ncycs builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 2400 ``` SEE get_times

 get_primitives ``` prims = get_primitives(file) Return the primitive data types for FILE as an array of 32 integers. The format is described under set_primitives. builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 2067 ``` SEE ALSO: set_primitives,   __xdr,   __i86

 get_ray_path ``` ray_info= get_ray_path(path, rt, zt) where PATH is one element of an array returned by track_rays, returns the points where the ray cut the edges of the mesh (ZT, RT). The returned RAY_INFO has two components: RAY_INFO(,1) is the z coordinates and RAY_INFO(,2) is the r coordinates. interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 1255 ``` SEE ALSO: track_rays

 get_s0 ``` get_s0(rays) returns the s-coordinate of the point of closest approach of the RAYS to the origin x=y=z=0. The length of the first dimension of RAYS may be either 3, 5, or 6; this first dimension will not be present in the result. The s-coordinate represents distance along the ray, increasing in the direction the ray moves. The 5 and 6 component ray coordinates include a reference point (x,y,z) on the ray; s=0 at that point. For the 3 component ray coordinate, get_s0 always returns 0. interpreted function, defined at i/rays.i line 223 ``` SEE ALSO: best_rays,   dirt_rays,   internal_rays

 get_std_limits ``` get_std_limits(rays, slimits) returns slimits suitable for internal routines: 2-by-nrays, with s=0 at point of closest approach to origin interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 913 ```

 get_style ``` get_style, landscape, systems, legends, clegends get the detailed style of the current drawing. The arguments are all outputs: landscape: 1 if drawing is landscape orientation, 0 if portrait system: an array of GfakeSystem struct instances, one per coordinate system in this drawing (ordinarily just one). legends: a GeLegendBox structure instance describing the layout of the plot legends clegends: a GeLegendBox structure instance describing the layout of the contour legends See the help for the GeLegendBox and GpTextAttribs structs for the details of the legends and clegends arguments. Basically, you can adjust the location of the legends on the page, the font and height of the characters used to render legends, and whether the legends are split into two columns. The coordinate systems are the systems accessible via the plsys command. The index of the system in the system array is the index you use to switch to it in the plsys command. Simple styles have only one coordinate system, and you should carefully consider whether you should design a graphic style with multiple coordinate systems -- most likely, you can do a better job by combining several separate Yorick pictures with some sort of page layout program, rather than trying to do this work within Yorick itself. See the help for the GfakeSystem struct for complete details of what you can adjust. The most interesting features you can control are the location and aspect ratio of the viewport, and the details of the axis ticks and labels. The gridxy function provides a simpler interface for fiddling with ticks and labels if that is all you need. The system.viewport member is the [xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax] of the rectangle on the page where your plots will appear, expressed in NDC coordinates (0.0013 NDC units equals one point, and there are 72.27 points per inch, and 2.54 cm per inch; the NDC origin is always at the lower left hand corner of the paper, with x increasing leftward and y increasing upward). If you change the size of the viewport, you will also need to change the parameters of the tick-generating model; like other problems in typography and page layout, this is harder than you might think. interpreted function, defined at i/style.i line 10 ``` SEE ALSO: set_style,   read_style,   write_style

 get_times ``` times= get_times(file) ncycs= get_ncycs(file) returns the list of time or ncyc values associated with the records if FILE, or nil if there are none. The time values are not guaranteed to be precise (but they should be good to at least 6 digits or so); the precise time associated with each record may be stored as a record variable. builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 2400 ``` SEE ALSO: collect,   openb,   updateb,   restore,   jt,   jc,   edit_times

 get_vars ``` name_lists= get_vars(file) returns the lists of non-record and record variable names in the binary FILE. The return value is an array of two pointers to arrays of type string; *name_lists(1) is the array of non-record variable names (or nil if there are none), *name_lists(2) is the array of record variable names. The get_addrs function returns corresponding lists of disk addresses; the get_member function can be used in conjunction with the dimsof, structof, and typeof functions to determine the other properties of a variable. builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 2348 ``` SEE ALSO: openb,   updateb,   restore,   jt,   jc,   has_records,   get_addrs,   set_vars

 get_ylm ``` get_ylm(pts, lmax, list) returns values of Ylm at the 3-by-anything array of unit vectors PTS, for all l and m up to LMAX. The return value is (lmax+1)*(lmax+2)/2-by-anything. The LIST is also returned; its value is [1, 2,2, 3,3,3, 4,4,4,4, ..., LMAX+1,LMAX+1,...,LMAX+1] -- i copies of each integer i up to LMAX+1. This can be useful in conjunction with the histogram function; its values are l+1 for each element of the returned array's first index. The m values are [0, 0,1, 0,1,2, 0,1,2,3, 0,1,2,3,4, ...]. Negative m values are omitted, since they would be the conjugates of m>0. llist= list-1; mlist= (!list(dif))(cum)-(list-2)*(list-1)/2; interpreted function, defined at i/ylmdec.i line 34 ```

 getc3 ``` getc3(i, m3, chunk) or getc3(i, m3, clist, l, u, fsl, fsu, cells) return cell values of the Ith function attached to 3D mesh M3 for cells in the specified CHUNK. The CHUNK may be a list of cell indices, in which case getc3 returns a (dimsof(CHUNK)) list of vertex coordinates. CHUNK may also be a mesh-specific data structure used in the slice3 routine, in which case getc3 may return a (ni)x(nj)x(nk) array of vertex values. There is no savings in the amount of data for such a CHUNK, but the gather operation is cheaper than a general list of cell indices. Use getc3 when writing colorng functions for slice3. If CHUNK is a CLIST, the additional arguments L, U, FSL, and FSU are vertex index lists which override the CLIST if the Ith attached function is defined on mesh vertices. L and U are index lists into the 2x2x2x(dimsof(CLIST)) vertex value array, say vva, and FSL and FSU are corresponding interpolation coefficients; the zone centered value is computed as a weighted average of involving these coefficients. The CELLS argument is required by histogram to do the averaging. See the source code for details. By default, this conversion (if necessary) is done by averaging the eight vertex-centered values. interpreted function, defined at i/slice3.i line 725 ``` SEE ALSO: slice3,   mesh3,   getv3,   xyz3

 getc3_rect ``` getc3_rect interpreted function, defined at i/slice3.i line 756 ```

 getdate ``` getdate -- get date of the day in the form "DD/MM/YY" SYNOPSIS: date= getdate(); getdate, date; HISTORY: October 30, 1995 by Eric THIEBAUT. interpreted function, defined at i/string.i line 34 ``` SEE ALSO: gettime,   parsedate,   timestamp

 gettime ``` gettime -- get current time in the form "HH:MM:SS" SYNOPSIS: time= gettime(); gettime, time; HISTORY: October 30, 1995 by Eric THIEBAUT. interpreted function, defined at i/string.i line 22 ``` SEE ALSO: getdate,   parsedate,   timestamp

 getv3 ``` getv3(i, m3, chunk) return vertex values of the Ith function attached to 3D mesh M3 for cells in the specified CHUNK. The CHUNK may be a list of cell indices, in which case getv3 returns a 2x2x2x(dimsof(CHUNK)) list of vertex coordinates. CHUNK may also be a mesh-specific data structure used in the slice3 routine, in which case getv3 may return a (ni)x(nj)x(nk) array of vertex values. For meshes which are logically rectangular or consist of several rectangular patches, this is up to 8 times less data, with a concomitant performance advantage. Use getv3 when writing slicing functions for slice3. interpreted function, defined at i/slice3.i line 688 ``` SEE ALSO: slice3,   mesh3,   getc3,   xyz3

 getv3_rect ``` getv3_rect interpreted function, defined at i/slice3.i line 708 ```

 gnomon ``` gnomon or gnomon, onoff Toggle the gnomon display. If ONOFF is non-nil and non-zero, turn on the gnomon. If ONOFF is zero, turn off the gnomon. The gnomon shows the X, Y, and Z axis directions in the object coordinate system. The directions are labeled. The gnomon is always infinitely far behind the object (away from the camera). There is a mirror-through-the-screen-plane ambiguity in the display which is resolved in two ways: (1) The (X,Y,Z) coordinate system is right-handed, and (2) If the tip of an axis projects into the screen, it's label is drawn in opposite polarity to the other text on the screen. interpreted function, defined at i/pl3d.i line 734 ```

 gridxy ``` gridxy, flag or gridxy, xflag, yflag Turns on or off grid lines according to FLAG. In the first form, both the x and y axes are affected. In the second form, XFLAG and YFLAG may differ to have different grid options for the two axes. In either case, a FLAG value of 0 means no grid lines (the default), a value of 1 means grid lines at all major ticks (the level of ticks which get grid lines can be set in the style sheet), and a FLAG value of 2 means that the coordinate origin only will get a grid line. In styles with multiple coordinate systems, only the current coordinate system is affected. The keywords can be used to affect the style of the grid lines. You can also turn the ticks off entirely. (You might want to do this to plot your own custom set of tick marks when the automatic tick generating machinery will never give the ticks you want. For example a latitude axis in degrees might reasonably be labeled "0, 30, 60, 90", but the automatic machinery considers 3 an "ugly" number - only 1, 2, and 5 are "pretty" - and cannot make the required scale. In this case, you can turn off the automatic ticks and labels, and use plsys, pldj, and plt to generate your own.) To fiddle with the tick flags in this general manner, set the 0x200 bit of FLAG (or XFLAG or YFLAG), and "or-in" the 0x1ff bits however you wish. The meaning of the various flags is described in the file Y_SITE/gist/work.gs. Additionally, you can use the 0x400 bit to turn on or off the frame drawn around the viewport. Here are some examples: gridxy,0x233 work.gs default setting gridxy,,0x200 like work.gs, but no y-axis ticks or labels gridxy,,0x231 like work.gs, but no y-axis ticks on right gridxy,0x62b boxed.gs default setting The three keywords base60=, degrees=, and hhmm= can be used to get alternative tick intervals for base 60 systems instead of the usual base 10 systems. The keyword values are 0 to restore the default behavior, 1 to set the feature for the x axis, 2 to set it for the y axis, and 3 to set it for both axes. The base60 feature allows ticks and labels at multiples of 30 (up to +-3600). The degrees feature causes labels to be printed modulo 360 (so that a scale which runs from, say, 90 to 270 will be printed as 90 to 180 then -180 to -90, mostly for longitude scales). The hhmm feature causes labels to be printed in the form hh:mm (so that, for example, 150 will be printed as 02:30, mostly for time of day scales). KEYWORDS: color, type, width, base60, degrees, hhmm builtin function, documented at i0/graph.i line 737 ``` SEE ALSO: window,   plsys,   limits,   range,   logxy,   viewport

 grow ``` grow, x, xnext1, xnext2, ... or grow(x, xnext1, xnext2, ...) or _(x, xnext1, xnext2, ...) lengthens the array X by appending XNEXT1, XNEXT2, etc. to its final dimension. If X is nil, X is first redefined to the first non-nil XNEXT, and the remainder of the XNEXT list is processed normally. Each XNEXT is considered to have the same number of dimensions as X, by appending unit-length dimensions if necessary. All but this final dimension of each XNEXT must be right-conformable (that is, conformable in the sense of the right hand side of an assignment statement) with all but the final dimension of X. The result has a final dimension which is the sum of the final dimension of X and all the final dimensions of the XNEXT. Nil XNEXT are ignored. The value of the result is obtained by concatenating all the XNEXT to X, after any required broadcasts. If invoked as a function, grow returns the new value of X; in this case, X may be an expression. X must be a simple variable reference for the subroutine form of grow; otherwise there is nowhere to return the result. The subroutine form is slightly more efficient than the function form for the common usage: x= grow(x, xnext1, xnext2) is the same as grow, x, xnext1, xnext2 the preferred form The _ function is a synonym for grow, for people who want this operator to look like punctuation in their source code, on analogy with the array building operator [a, b, c, ...]. The _cat function is sometimes more appropriate than grow. builtin function, documented at i0/std.i line 857 ``` SEE ALSO: _cat,   array

 grtest ``` grtest or grtest, nstart Perform a comprehensive test of Yorick's graphics package. Pauses after each frame to let you check the result. Each picture attempts to describe itself (of course, if text plotting is broken, this doesn't do any good). With NSTART, start with test number NSTART. interpreted function, defined at i/testg.i line 249 ``` SEE ALSO: testg,   lissajous

 guess_symmetry ``` guess_symmetry, f or guess_symmetry(f) guesses the symmetry of the problem in the dump file F based on the variables f.isymz, f.rt, and f.zt. If called as a subroutine, prints one of: "no symmetry", "z=0 reflection symmetry", or "spherical symmetry" If called as a function, returns 0, 1, or 2, respectively. interpreted function, defined at i0/drat.i line 931 ```

 gw ``` gw interpreted function, defined at i/testg.i line 239 ```