E D I C T
JAPANESE/ENGLISH DICTIONARY FILE
Copyright (C) 2003 The Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, Monash University.
The EDICT file results from a long-running project to produce a freely available Japanese/English Dictionary in machine-readable form.
The EDICT file is copyright, and is distributed in accordance with the Licence Statement, which can found at the WWW site of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group who are the owners of the copyright.
The version date and sequence number is included in the dictionary itself under the entry "EDICT". (Actually it is under the JIS-ASCII code "????". This keeps it as the first entry when it is sorted.)
The master copy of EDICT is in the pub/nihongo directory of ftp.cc.monash.edu.au. There are other copies around, but they may not be as up-to-date. The easy way to check if the version you have is the latest is from the size/date.
As of V96-001, the EDICT file no longer contains proper names. These have been moved to a separate file called "ENAMDICT". From V99-002, the EDICT file has been generated from an extended dictionary database which includes additional fields and information. See the later section on the new JMdict project for details of this.
EDICT's format is that of the original "EDICT" format used by the early PC Japanese word-processor MOKE (Mark's Own Kanji Editor). It uses EUC-JP coding for kana and kanji, however this can be converted to JIS (ISO-2022-JP) or Shift-JIS by any of the several conversion programs around. It is a text file with one entry per line. The format of entries is:
KANJI [KANA] /English_1/English_2/.../
(NB: Only the KANJI and KANA are in EUC; all the other characters, including spaces, must be ASCII.)
The English translations are deliberately brief, as the application of the dictionary is expected to be primarily on-line look-ups, etc.
The EDICT file is not intended to have its entries in any particular order. In fact it almost always is in order as a by-product of the update method I use, however there is no guarantee of this. (The order is almost always JIS + alphabetical, starting with the head-word.)
EDICT has developed as follows:
At this stage EDICT has many more entries than many good commercial dictionaries, which typically have 20,000+ non-name entries with examples, etc. It is certainly bigger than some of the smaller printed dictionaries, and when used in conjunction with a search-and-display program like JDIC or XJDIC it provides a highly effective on-line dictionary service.
Dictionary copyright is a difficult point, because clearly the first lexicographer who published "inu means dog" could not claim a copyright violation over all subsequent Japanese dictionaries. While it is usual to consult other dictionaries for "accurate lexicographic information", as Nelson put it, wholesale copying is, of course, not permissible. What makes each dictionary unique (and copyrightable) is the particular selection of words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a very important point in the case of EDICT), and the means of publication. Of course, the fact that for the most part the kanji and kana of each entry are coming from public sources, and the structure and layout of the entries themselves are quite unlike those in any published dictionary, adds a degree of protection to EDICT.
The advice I have received from people who know about these things is that EDICT is just as much a new dictionary as any others on the market. Readers may see an entry which looks familiar, and say "Aha! That comes from the XYZ Jiten!". They may be right, and they may be wrong. After all there aren't too many translations of neko. Let me make one thing quite clear, despite considerable temptation (Electronic Books can be easily decoded), NONE of this dictionary came from commercial machine-readable dictionaries. I have a case of RSI in my right elbow to prove it.
Please do not contribute entries to EDICT which have come directly from copyrightable sources. It is hard to check these, and you may be jeopardizing EDICT's status.
EDICT is actually a Japanese->English dictionary, although the words within it can be selected in either language using appropriate software. (JDIC uses it to provide both E->J and J->E functionality.)
The early stages of EDICT had size limitations due to its usage (MOKE scans it sequentially and JDXGEN, which is JDIC's index generator, held it in RAM.) This meant that examples of usage could not be included, and inclusion of phrases was very limited. JDIC/JDXGEN can now handle a much larger dictionary, but the compact format has continued.
No inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, except in idiomatic expressions. Similarly particles are handled as separate entries. Adverbs formed from adjectives (-ku or ni) are generally not included. Verbs are, of course, in the plain or "dictionary" form.
Starting with the 2001 editions, approximately 20,000 entries comprising the most commonly-used words in Japanese are marked with a "(P)" at the end of the entry. This list has been identified by examining several small dictionaries, and lists of common gairaigo from Japanese newspapers.
Parts of Speech
In working on EDICT, bearing in mind I want to use it in MOKE and with JDIC, I had to come up with a solution to the problem of adjectival nouns [keiyoudoushi] (e.g. kirei and kantan), nouns which can be used adjectivally with the particle "no" and verbs formed by adding suru (e.g. benkyousuru). If I put entries in EDICT with the "na" and "suru" included, MOKE would not find a match when they are omitted or, the case of suru, inflected. What I decided to do is to put the basic noun into the dictionary and add "(vs)" where it can be used to form a verb with suru, "(a-no)" for common "no" usage, and "(an)" if it is an adjectival noun. Entries appeared as:
KANJI [benkyou] /study (vs)/ KANJI [kantan] /simple (an)/
In early 2001, as part of the JMdict project (see below), I completely revised this system, instead introducing a comprehensive system of Part of Speech (POS) tags. In the EDICT version of the file these tags usually appear in parentheses at the start of the entry, separated into general tags and POS tags. Where a tag applies to a single gloss or meaning, it will be included there instead.
The (hopefully) full list of such markers is:
abbr abbreviation adj adjective (keiyoushi) adv adverb (fukushi) adj-na adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi) adj-no nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no" adj-pn pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi) adj-s special adjective (e.g. ookii) adj-t "taru" adjective arch archaism ateji ateji reading of the kanji aux auxiliary word or phrase aux-v auxiliary verb conj conjunction col colloquialism exp Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.) ek exclusively kanji, rarely just in kana fam familiar language fem female term or language gikun gikun (meaning) reading gram grammatical term hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language hum humble (kenjougo) language id idiomatic expression int interjection (kandoushi) iK word containing irregular kanji usage ik word containing irregular kana usage io irregular okurigana usage MA martial arts term male male term or language m-sl manga slang n noun (common) (futsuumeishi) n-adv adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi) n-t noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi) n-suf noun, used as a suffix neg negative (in a negative sentence, or with negative verb) neg-v negative verb (when used with) num number, numeric obs obsolete term obsc obscure term oK word containing out-dated kanji ok out-dated or obsolete kana usage pol polite (teineigo) language pref prefix prt particle qv quod vide (see another entry) sl slang suf suffix uK word usually written using kanji alone uk word usually written using kana alone v1 Ichidan verb v5 Godan verb (not completely classified) v5u Godan verb with `u' ending v5u-s Godan verb with `u' ending - special class v5k Godan verb with `ku' ending v5g Godan verb with `gu' ending v5s Godan verb with `su' ending v5t Godan verb with `tsu' ending v5n Godan verb with `nu' ending v5b Godan verb with `bu' ending v5m Godan verb with `mu' ending v5r Godan verb with `ru' ending v5k-s Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class v5z Godan verb - -zuru special class (alternative form of -jiru verbs) v5aru Godan verb - -aru special class v5uru Godan verb - Uru old class verb (old form of Eru) vi intransitive verb vs noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru vs-s suru verb - special class vk Kuru verb - special class vt transitive verb vulg vulgar expression or word X rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)
From the 2001 editions of EDICT, the differing senses associated with the Japanese head-words are being progessively marked. The marking takes the form of a "(1)", "(2)", etc. in front of the senses.
I have endeavoured to cater for many possible variants of English translation and spelling. Where appropriate different translations are included for national variants (e.g. autumn/fall). I use Oxford (British) standard spelling (-our, -ize) for the entries I make, but I leave other entries in the national spelling of the submitter.
At some stage in the future I intend to regularize the English spellings in such a way that allows searches on either British or American spellings to be successful.
Gairaigo and Regional Words
For gairaigo which have not been derived from English words, I have attempted to indicate the source language and the word in that language. Languages have been coded in the two-letter codes from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the representation of names of languages" standard, e.g. "(fr: avec)". See Appendix C for more on this. (Thanks to Holger Gruber for suggesting this language coding.)
In addition to the language codes described in Appendix C, a number of tags are used to indicate that a word or phrase is associated with a particular regional language variant within Japan. The tags are:
kyb Kyoto-ben osb Osaka-ben ksb Kansai-ben ktb Kantou-ben tsb Tosa-ben
In the case of gairaigo which have a meaning which is not apparent from the original (English) words, the literal transcription is included, with the tag (lit).
Early in 1999 work began on the JMdict project, which aims to extend the structure and content of the EDICT file to enable it to contain additional information and provided an improved service to users.
The project has several broad goals:
By May 1999 the EDICT file had been converted into the new format. A major part of this consisted of identifying and combining entries which were effectively variants of each other.
Since V99-002, the EDICT file has been generated from the new format. This has meant:
EDICT can be freely used provided satisfactory acknowledgement is made, and a number of other conditions are met. Consult the Licence Statement information at Appendix A.
It is, of course, the main dictionary used by PD and GPL Copyright software such as JDIC, JREADER, XJDIC, MacJDic, etc. It can be used as the dictionary within MOKE (it may need to be renamed JTOE.DCT if used with version 2.1 of MOKE), and it is also used by the NJSTAR and JWP Word Processor packages.
I will be delighted if people send me corrections, suggestions, and ESPECIALLY additions. Before ripping in with a lot of suggestions, make sure you have the latest version, as others may have already made the same comments.
The preferred format for submissions is a JIS, EUC or Shift-JIS file (uuencoded for safety) containing replacement/new entries. This can be emailed to me at the address at the end of this file.
Feel free to use the following format:
NEW: KANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/
Please provide an annotated reason for any deletions or amendments you send.
I prefer not to get a "diff" or "patch" file as the master EDICT is under continuous revision, and may have had quite a few changes since you got your copy.
Users intending to make submissions to EDICT should follow the following simple rules:
The following people, in roughly chronological order, have played a part in the development of EDICT. (I stopped adding to this list some years ago, so it is of historical interest now.)
Mark Edwards, Spencer Green, Alina Skoutarides, Takako Machida, Theresa Martin, Satoshi Tadokoro, Stephen Chung, Hidekazu Tozaki, Clifford Olling, David Cooper, Ken Lunde, Joel Schulman, Hiroto Kagotani, Truett Smith, Mike Rosenlof, Harold Rowe, Al Harkom, Per Hammarlund, Atsushi Fukumoto, John Crossley, Bob Kerns, Frank O'Carroll, Rik Smoody, Scott Trent, Curtis Eubanks, Jamie Packer, Hitoshi Doi, Thalawyn Silverwood, Makato Shimojima, Bart Mathias, Koichi Mori, Steven Sprouse, Jeffrey Friedl, Yazuru Hiraga, Kurt Stueber, Rafael Santos, Bruce Casner, Masato Toho, Carolyn Norton, Simon Clippingdale, Shiino Masayoshi, Susumu Miki, Yushi Kaneda, Masahiko Tachibana, Naoki Shibata, Yuzuru Hiraga, Yasuaki Nakano, Atsu Yagasaki, Hitoshi Oi, Chizuko Kanazawa, Lars Huttar, Jonathan Hanna, Yoshimasa Tsuji, Masatsugu Mamimura, Keiichi Nakata, Masako Nomura, Hiroshi Kamabe, Shi-Wen Peng, Norihiro Okada, Jun-ichi Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Mizuno, Minoru Terada, Itaru Ichikawa, Toru Matsuda, Katsumi Inoue, John Finlayson, David Luke, Iain Sinclair, Warwick Hockley, Jamii Corley, Howard Landman, Tom Bryce, Jim Thomas, Paul Burchard, Kenji Saito, Ken Eto, Niibe Yutaka, Hideyuki Ozaki, Kouichi Suzuki, Sakaguchi Takeyuki, Haruo Furuhashi, Takashi Hattori, Yoshiyuki Kondo, Kusakabe Youichi, Nobuo Sakiyama, Kouhei Matsuda, Toru Sato, Takayuki Ito, Masayuki Tokoshima, Kiyo Inaba, Dan Cohn, Yo Tomita, Ed Hall, Takashi Imamura, Bernard Greenberg, Michael Raine, Akiko Nagase, Ben Bullock, Scott Draves, Matthew Haines, Andy Howells, Takayuki Ito, Anders Brabaek, Michael Chachich, Masaki Muranaka, Paul Randolph, Vesa Karhu, Bruce Bailey, Gal Shalif, Riichiro Saito, Keith Rogers, Steve Petersen, Bill Smith, Barry Byrne, Satoshi Kuramoto, Jason Molenda, Travis Stewart, Yuichiro Kushiro Keiko Okushi, Wayne Lammers, Koichi Fujino, Joerg Fischer, Satoru Miyazaki, Gaspard Gendreau, David Olson, Peter Evans, Steven Zaveloff, Larry Tyrrell, Heinz Clemencon, Justin Mayer, David Jones, Holger Gruber, David Wilson, John De Hoog, Stephen Davis, Dan Crevier, Ron Granich, Bruce Raup, Scott Childress, Richard Warmington, Jean-Jacques Labarthe, Matt Bloedel, Szabolcs Varga, Alan Bram, Hidetaka Koie, David Villareale, Hirokazu Ohata, Toshiki Sasabe, William Maton, Tom Salmon, Kian Yap, Paul Denisowski, Glen Pankow, Richard Northcott, Roger Meunier, Petteri Kettunen, Jeff Korpa, Kanji Haitani, Liam O'Brien, Serdar Yegulalp, Jonathan Way, Gururaj Rao, Yoichiro Niitsu, Ralph Seewald, Andreas Jordell, Chua Hian Koon, Hartmut Pilch, Shouichi Takeuchi, Ayumu Yasutomi, Mike Wright, James Rose, Nich Hill.
APPENDIX A: EDICT LICENCE STATEMENT
In March 2000, James William Breen assigned ownership of the copyright of the dictionary files assembled, coordinated and edited by him to the The Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group at Monash University.
EDICT can be freely used provided satisfactory acknowledgement is made, and a number of other conditions are met. Information about the licence and copyright for EDICT can be found on the Group's WWW page at: http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/groups/edrdg/
In summary, EDICT can be freely used with acknowledgement.
APPENDIX B. LANGUAGE CODES FROM ISO 639
The following language codes have been used with non-English derived gairaigo. They have been derived from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the representation of names of languages" standard.
ar Arabic zh Chinese (Zhongwen) de German (Deutsch) en English fr French el Greek (Ellinika) iw Hebrew (Iwrith) ja Japanese ko Korean nl Dutch (Nederlands) no Norwegian pl Polish ru Russian sv Swedish bo Tibetan (Bodskad) eo Esperanto es Spanish in Indonesian it Italian lt Latin pt Portugese hi Hindi ur Urdu mn Mongolian kl Inuit (formerly Eskimo)
And I have added the following, which are not in the Standard: