db_upgrade [-NsV] [-h home] [-P password] file ...
The db_upgrade utility upgrades the Berkeley DB version of one or more
files and the databases they contain to the current release version.
The options are as follows:
- Specify a home directory for the database environment; by
default, the current working directory is used.
- Do not acquire shared region mutexes while running. Other problems,
such as potentially fatal errors in Berkeley DB, will be ignored as well.
This option is intended only for debugging errors, and should not be
used under any other circumstances.
- Specify an environment password. Although Berkeley DB utilities overwrite
password strings as soon as possible, be aware there may be a window of
vulnerability on systems where unprivileged users can see command-line
arguments or where utilities are not able to overwrite the memory
containing the command-line arguments.
- This flag is only meaningful when upgrading databases from releases
before the Berkeley DB 3.1 release.
As part of the upgrade from the Berkeley DB 3.0 release to the 3.1 release,
the on-disk format of duplicate data items changed. To correctly upgrade
the format requires that applications specify whether duplicate data
items in the database are sorted or not. Specifying the -s
flag means that the duplicates are sorted; otherwise, they are assumed
to be unsorted. Incorrectly specifying the value of this flag may lead
to database corruption.
Because the db_upgrade utility upgrades a physical file
(including all the databases it contains), it is not possible to use
db_upgrade to upgrade files where some of the databases it
includes have sorted duplicate data items, and some of the databases it
includes have unsorted duplicate data items. If the file does not have
more than a single database, if the databases do not support duplicate
data items, or if all the databases that support duplicate data items
support the same style of duplicates (either sorted or unsorted),
db_upgrade will work correctly as long as the -s flag
is correctly specified. Otherwise, the file cannot be upgraded using
db_upgrade, and must be upgraded manually using the
db_dump and db_load utilities.
- Write the library version number to the standard output, and exit.
It is important to realize that Berkeley DB database upgrades are done
in place, and so are potentially destructive. This means that if the
system crashes during the upgrade procedure, or if the upgrade procedure
runs out of disk space, the databases may be left in an inconsistent and
unrecoverable state. See Upgrading
databases for more information.
The db_upgrade utility may be used with a Berkeley DB environment (as described for the
-h option, the environment variable DB_HOME, or
because the utility was run in a directory containing a Berkeley DB
environment). In order to avoid environment corruption when using a
Berkeley DB environment, db_upgrade should always be given the chance to
detach from the environment and exit gracefully. To cause db_upgrade
to release all environment resources and exit cleanly, send it an
interrupt signal (SIGINT).
The db_upgrade utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
- If the -h option is not specified and the environment variable
DB_HOME is set, it is used as the path of the database home, as described
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